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The continuous flowmeter

8 de dezembro de 2021 09:01   Telemóveis e Tablets   Tete   31 vistas

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The continuous flowmeter

Flow meters are classed as volumetric or inferential, the latter term referring to meters that determine velocity from other variables such as pressure differences across a device such as an orifice plate. There is a large variety of flow measurement device, using numerous physical principles. Full discussion of the whole range of flow measurement device is out of the scope of this book but the reader will find a comprehensive reference in the Flow Measurement Handbook (Baker, 2000). Table 18.4 gives typical information on some of the flow meters usually encountered in the water industry.

 

Mass magnetic flowmeter such as the Coriolis meter provide a more sophisticated metering device. Sometimes configured in a distinctive U-tube shape, an internal tube is set oscillating using an electric current supplied to coils at either end of the tube. The flow of liquid through the tube sets up a twisting force on the inner tube due to the naturally occurring Coriolis Effect. Sensors fitted along the length of the tube detect and measure the twisting force, which is a function of the mass flow rate; the processed data provides production and fluid density data.

 

The principles of orifice and venturi meters are discussed in Section 14.16. Two other kinds of inferential (or momentum) meter are the Dall tube and the V cone venturi. In both, flow accelerates through a constriction and leads to a pressure drop. The pressure difference is measured in the Dall tube and the V cone venturi as an indicator of velocity (and so flow) in the same way as for an orifice. The V cone venturi design is claimed to have a turn-down ratio of 25:1 and to be less affected by conditions upstream and downstream and can be fitted into shorter lengths of straight pipe than is recommended for other meter types. Further types of momentum meter are indicated in Table 18.5.

 

An ultrasonic flow meter as shown in Fig. 16.11 measures the velocity of a fluid to calculate volume flow. The vortex flowmeter can measure the average velocity along the path of an emitted beam of ultrasound by averaging the difference in measured transit time between the pulses of ultrasound propagating into and against the direction of the flow or by measuring the frequency shift from the Doppler effect. Ultrasonic flow meters are affected by the acoustic properties of the fluid and can be impacted by temperature, density, viscosity and suspended particulates. They are often inexpensive to use and maintain because they do not use moving parts, unlike mechanical flow meters.

 


 
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