Sand castings are casting process by which sand is used to create a mold, after which liquid metal is poured into this mold to create a part. To learn about the other forms of casting, visit our article on the types of casting processes. Sand is used in this method because it insulates well, it is relatively cheap, and it can be formed into any number of mold shapes. There are defined steps to this process (shown simplified in Figure 1), and this article will walk through each of these steps to illustrate exactly how this casting procedure is conducted.The fourth step begins when the desired final material (almost exclusively some metal) is melted in a furnace, and is then poured into the mold. It is carefully poured/ladled into the sprue of the mold, where the molten metal will conform to the cavity left by the patterns, and then left to cool completely. After the metal is no longer hot, manufacturers will remove the sand from the mold (via vibrations, waterjets, and other non-destructive means, known as “shakeout”) to reveal the rough final part.
Valves are mechanical or electro-mechanical devices that are used to control the movement of liquids, gases, powders, etc. through pipes or tubes, or from tanks or other containers. In most instances, valve relys on some form of mechanical barrier—a plate, a ball, a diaphragm, for example—that can be inserted and removed from the flow stream of the material passing by. Some valves are designed as on-off varieties, while others allow very fine control of the passage of media.
Material selection and valve parts play an important role in specifying valves to ensure the compatibility of the wetted parts of the valve with the fluid or powder passing through it. Sizing is determined by the pipe or tubing diameter, flow rate, and the width between flanges for pipeline valves being installed as replacements.
Types of Valves and Their ApplicationsForged flange is defined as a plate type device, normally round, that is attached to the end of a pipe, fitting, valve or other object to facilitate the assembly and disassembly of a piping system.Forging, a metal shaping technique using compressive, localized forces, has been a staple metal fabrication technique since the time of the ancient Mesopotamians. Since its origins in the fertile crescent, forging has experienced significant changes, resulting in a more efficient, faster, and more durable process. This is because today, forging is most commonly performed with the use of forging presses or hammering tools that are powered by electricity, hydraulics or compressed air. Some of the common materials used for forging are carbon steel, alloy steel, microalloy steel, stainless steel, aluminum, and titanium.
Some three million miles of oil and gas pipelines already run through our country, but KXL wasn’t your average pipeline, and tar sands oil isn’t your average crude.
A grill is an object used for cooking food. With a grill, food is usually roasted. Some grills use charcoal or wood, and other grills use propane gas to cook the food.